- Nearly 60 years after his death, Alan Turing, the British mathematician regarded as one of the central figures in the development of the computer, received a formal pardon from Queen Elizabeth II on Monday for his conviction in 1952 on charges of homosexuality, at the time a criminal offense in Britain.
Mr. Turing committed suicide in 1954 2 years after the 1952 conviction. He was 41.
In a 1936 research paper, Turing anticipated a computing machine that could perform different tasks by altering its software, rather than its hardware. He also proposed the now famous Turing test, used to determine artificial intelligence.