A: With the caution that when dealing with human tolerances any 'measure' is nothing more than an average and since no person is average except for a few measurements...and all the other variables which need to be considered when dealing with impact tolerances...
use with caution.
From the Book Accidental Injury - Biomechanics and Prevention
2nd Ed, Nahum & Melvin
(OUCH! $300 price tag! I'm sure we didn't pay that much so shop around or visit a local school library)
Chapter 22 is Vehicle Interactions with Pedestrians
It includes a section ‘Lower Limb Injury Research'
Which includes ‘important vehicle front parameters in pedestrian lower limb testing’
- There appears to be conflicting information regarding the tibia’s tolerance to lateral impact. Cesari measured impact forces of 3300 N in cadaver tests resulting in Tibia fracture for low speed impacts. Kajzer suggested that 4000 N would be a reasonable impact tolerance for the lower leg and wibia and others have concurred. These findings contrast with Snider who resported impact tolerance between 1500 and 3000 N for dynamics impact to the tibia. This difference may arise from differences in test procedures. Kajzer tests complete lower legs while Snider tested the tibia alone.
- Cesari, Cavallero, Roche, “Mechanisms producing lower extremity injuries in pedestrian accident situations” Proceedings 33rd Annual Meeting AAAMm 1989
Kajzer, “Bumper system evaluation using an experimental pedestrian dummy”, Proceedings 12th ESV, 1989
Snider, Fuller, Wasserman “The response of lower leg to impact loadings”, Proceedings 1988 ICROBI Conference, 1988