Backing Behavior/Rearward Acceleration of Drivers

Topics related to Vehicle Specifications, Vehicle Acceleration Tests, Vehicle Braking Tests
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MSI
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Backing Behavior/Rearward Acceleration of Drivers

Post by MSI »

A study from 1995 (we expect with the installation of rear cameras that there has been much more research and will post up references as we come across them)

Field Measurement of Naturalistic Backing Behavior
NHTSA , DOT HS 808 532 from 1995
ABSTRACT:
  • A series of observations and measurements were made as 21 subjects drove their own vehicles in an assortment of naturalistic backing tasks. The tasks were performed on public roads in real world driving conditions. As the subjects performed the eight tasks, the following data were collected: glance direction, hand position, car speed, and distance to object in back of the vehicle.
    The results provide a set of normative data usable by automotive system designers for the design of backing warning systems, or other products or environments related to backing.
    The results were divided into glance direction, backing speed, and time-to-collision. Glance. directions were found to vary greatly between tasks, and were distributed widely around the vehicle.
    • Elderly drivers demonstrated a preference for using their mirrors and looked over their shoulder less then the young subjects. Except for the extended backing maneuvers, backing speeds averaged around 3 mph.
    • The maximum backing speed for the young drivers was faster than the elderly and males backed faster than females.
    • Time-to collision values were approximately the same for males and females as well as young and old.
    • Time-to-collision tended to remain relatively constant as the vehicle backed toward on object.
    • The minimum times-to-collision exceeded 1.0 s, and usually exceeded 2.0 s
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Re: Backing Behavior/Rearward Acceleration of Drivers

Post by MSI »

DRIVER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TWO REAR PARKING AIDS
18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV)
18th ESV Conference
Shane B. McLaughlin, Jonathan M. Hankey, Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
Charles A. Green, Raymond J. Kiefer, General Motors Corporation
Paper Number 522
ABSTRACT
  • Four levels of parking aids were tested using 32 participants in two age groups with equal numbers of men and women. Levels of parking aid were: no aid, ultrasonic rear park assist (URPA) with an auditory/visual distance to an object interface, a video view to the rear, and a combination of URPA with video view. Using a sport-utility vehicle, eighteen participants between 45 years and 55 years, and 14 participants 60 years and older performed five parking tasks: entering and exiting a parallel space, entering and exiting a perpendicular space, and backing to a trailer hitch. Participants reported higher scores of parking quality and judging distance to other objects with the video system than without. Objective measures including time to park, final
    position and angle in parking space showed differences based on parking aid system (URPA versus video). Age groups and replication number also showed differences. Total eye glance times to different areas of the vehicle showed differences based on parking aid system.
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Re: Backing Behavior/Rearward Acceleration of Drivers

Post by MSI »

Backing collisions: a study of drivers’ eye and backing behaviour using combined rear-view camera and sensor systems
David S Hurwitz, Anuj Pradhan, Donald L Fisher, Michael A Knodler, Jeffrey W Muttart, Rajiv Menon, Uwe Meissner
Oct 2009
ABSTRACT
  • Context
    • Backing crash injures can be severe; approximately 200 of the 2,500 reported injuries of this type per year to children under the age of 15 years result in death. Technology for assisting drivers when backing
      has limited success in preventing backing crashes.
    Objectives
    • Two questions are addressed: Why is the reduction in backing crashes moderate when rear-view cameras are deployed? Could rear-view cameras augment sensor systems?
    Design
    • 46 drivers (36 experimental, 10 control) completed 16 parking trials over 2 days (eight trials per day). Experimental participants were provided with a sensor camera system, controls were not. Three crash
      scenarios were introduced.
    Setting
    • Parking facility at UMass Amherst, USA.
    Subjects
    • 46 drivers (33 men, 13 women) average age 29 years, who were Massachusetts residents licensed within the USA for an average of 9.3 years.
    Interventions
    • Vehicles equipped with a rear-view camera and sensor system-based parking aid.
    Main Outcome Measures
    • Subject’s eye fixations while driving and researcher’s observation of collision with objects during backing.
    Results
    • Only 20% of drivers looked at the rear-view camera before backing, and 88% of those did not crash. Of those who did not look at the rear-view camera before backing, 46% looked after the sensor warned the driver.
    Conclusions
    • This study indicates that drivers not only attend to an audible warning, but will look at a rear-view camera if available. Evidence suggests that when used appropriately, rear-view cameras can mitigate the occurrence of backing crashes, particularly when paired with an appropriate sensor system
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Re: Backing Behavior/Rearward Acceleration of Drivers

Post by MSI »

Acceleration Testing and Modeling of Vehicle Kinematics Under Idle Conditions
SAE Paper 2014_01-0484
Bryan Randles, Daniel Voss, Isaac Ikram, Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher, Thomas Szabo
  • Determination of vehicle speed at the time of impact is frequently an important factor in accident reconstruction. In many cases some evidence may indicate that the brake pedal of a striking vehicle was disengaged, and the vehicle was permitted to idle forward prior to impacting the target vehicle. This study was undertaken to analyze the kinematic response of various vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions while idling, with the transmissions in drive and the brake pedals disengaged. An array of sedans, SUV's and pickup trucks were tested under 3 roadway conditions (flat, medium slope and high slope). The vehicle responses are reported and mathematical relationships were developed to model the idle velocity profiles for flat and sloped roadway surfaces.
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